As we’ve said, computer scientists study both the algorithms we write to manipulate information and the ways in which we represent information. We’ve looked at one way of representing collections so far, lists. As we’ve explored lists, we’ve focused on lists that contain all the same kinds of values, mostly lists of numbers. We call such lists “homogeneous lists”. But lists can contain mixtures of kinds of values. We call lists with mixtures of kinds of values “heterogeneous lists”.
Here’s one example of a heterogeneous list. Consider the list of UFO sightings available at http://www.ufocasebook.com/casefiles.html. For each sighting we have a year, a name, a date (or date-like description), a location (mostly a country), a Yes/No for effect, media, contact, and abduction. (You can look at the page for what each of those mean.) We might therefore represent each entry as an eight element list.
For example, here’s what we might see for one entry.
'(1969 "The Russian Crash - Sverdlovsky" "Mar, 1969" "Russia" #t #t #t #f)
Why did we start with zero, rather than one? Because lists, like strings, are “zero indexed”. The index represents the number of items that come before the element.
How do we extract the different elements from the list, either to
display them or compare them? The most straightforward is to use
list-ref, a two-parameter procedure that takes a list and an index
as inputs and returns the item at that index.
> (list-ref sverdlovsky 0) 1969 > (list-ref sverdlovsky 1) "The Russian Crash - Sverdlovsky" > (list-ref sverdlovsky 2) "Mar, 1969" > (list-ref sverdlovsky 3) "Russia" > (list-ref sverdlovsky 4) #t
Scheme also provides two other operations to extract values from lists:
car extracts the first element (element zero) and
cdr returns a list
containing all but the first element.
> (car sverdlovsky) 1969 > (cdr sverdlovsky) '("The Russian Crash - Sverdlovsky" "Mar, 1969" "Russia" #t #t #t #f)
We’ve been building new lists using
make-list. But what
if we have an existing list and we want to add an element to the front?
Say, suppose we want to add a unique identifier to each sighting, such
'ufo023. Scheme provides an operation called
cons that builds
a new list by adding a value to the front of the list.
> (cons 'ufo023 sverdlovsky) '(ufo023 1969 "The Russian Crash - Sverdlovsky" "Mar, 1969" "Russia" #t #t #t #f) > sverdlovsky '(1969 "The Russian Crash - Sverdlovsky" "Mar, 1969" "Russia" #t #t #t #f) > (define sample (cons 'ufo023 sverdlovsky)) > sample '(ufo023 1969 "The Russian Crash - Sverdlovsky" "Mar, 1969" "Russia" #t #t #t #f)
Why is it called
cons instead of
list-prepend or something
similar? Well, that’s the name John McCarthy, the designer of Lisp, chose
about fifty years ago. “
cons” is short for construct, because
cons constructs lists. (The custom of naming procedures with the basic
type they operate on, a dash, and the key operation did not start until
a few decades later.) The names
cdr were chosen for very
specific reasons that will not make sense for a few more weeks. For now,
just accept that you’re learning a bit of computer-ese.
But what if you want to have more than one list, such as when we want to study all of the UFO sightings? We can make a list of lists. We’ll consider that topic in a related reading.
You’ve now seen a variety of ways to build lists. You can use the
procedure. You can use the
make-list procedure. You can use
to prepend a value to a list. Suppose you prefer to build lists with
cons. How can you get started, given that
cons expects a list as
one of its parameters? You start with the empty list.
Scheme’s name for the empty list is a pair of parentheses with nothing
(). Most implementations of Scheme permit you to refer to
that list as
null. You can also create it with
permit you to describe the empty list by putting a single quote before
the pair of parentheses.
> '() '() > nil '() > null '() > (list) '()
You will find that we prefer to use a name for that list. If sample code does not work in your version of Scheme, try inserting the following definitions.
(define nil '()) (define null '())
Note that by using
nil, we can build up a list of any length by starting with the empty list and repeatedly prepending a value.
> (define singleton (cons "Russia" null)) > singleton '("Russia") > (define doubleton (cons "Mar, 1969" singleton)) > doubleton '("Mar, 1969" "Russia") > (define tripleton (cons "The Russian Crash - Sverdlovsky" doubleton)) > tripleton '("The Russian Crash - Sverdlovsky" "Mar, 1969" "Russia") > (cons "senior" (cons "third-year" (cons "second-year" (cons "freshling" null)))) '("senior" "third-year" "second-year" "freshling")
You may note that lists built in this way seem a bit “backwards”. That
is, the value we add last appears at the front, rather than at the
back. However, that’s simply the way
cons works and, as the last
example suggests, in many cases it is a quite sensible thing to do.
Scheme provides two basic predicates for checking whether a value is a
null? predicate checks whether a value is the empty list. The
list? predicate checks whether a value is a list (empty or nonempty).
> (null? null) #t > (list? null) #t > (null? (list 1 2 3)) #f > (list? (list 1 2 3)) #t > (null? 5) #f > (list? 5) #f
It turns out that you can build any other list procedure with just
null?, and some other programming
techniques. Nonetheless, there are enough common operations that most
programmers want to do with lists that Scheme includes them as basic
operations. (That means you don’t have to define them yourself.) Here
are a few that programmers frequently use. You may have seen some
of these before.
length procedure takes one parameter, which must be a list, and
computes the number of elements in the list. (An element that happens to
be itself a list nevertheless contributes 1 to the total that
computes, regardless of how many elements it happens to contain.)
> (length null) 0 > (length (list 1 2 3)) 3 > (length (list (list 1 2 3))) 1
append procedure takes any number of arguments, each of which is a list, and returns a new list formed by stringing together all of the elements of the argument lists, in order, to form one long list.
> (append (list "red" "green") (list "blue" "yellow")) '("red" "green" "blue" "yellow")
The empty list acts as the identity for
> (append null (list "blue" "yellow")) '("blue" "yellow") > (append (list "red" "green") null) '("red" "green") > (append null null) '()
cadrand company: Combining
To reduce the amount of typing necessary for the programmer, many
implementations of Scheme provide procedures that combine
in various ways. These procedures begin with the letter “c”, end with
the letter “r” and have a sequence of “a”’s and “d”’s in
the middle to indicate the sequence of calls to
car (for an “a”)
cdr (for a “d”). For example,
cadr computes the car of the
cdr of a list (the second element),
cddr computes the cdr of the cdr
of a list (all but the first two elements), and
caar computes the car
of the car of a list (applicable only to nested lists).
> (define rainbow (list "red" "orange" "yellow" "green" "blue" "indigo" "violet")) > (cadr rainbow) "orange" > (cddr rainbow) '("yellow" "green" "blue" "indigo" "violet") > (caddr rainbow) "yellow" > (cdddr rainbow) '("green" "blue" "indigo" "violet")
nullStandard list constant.
(cons value lst)Standard List Procedure.
valueto the front of
(cdr lst)Standard List Procedure.
lstbut without the first element.
(car lst)Standard List Procedure.
(null? lst)Standard list predicate.
lstis the empty list.
(list-ref lst n)Standard List Procedure.
nth element of
lst. Note that elements are numbered starting at 0.
(length lst)Standard List Procedure.
(append lst_0 lst_1 ... lst_n)Standard List Procedure.
(caar lst)Standard List Procedure.
lst’s first element is a list, gets the first element of that first element, the the
lstis not a list, or its first element is not a list, reports an error.
(cadr lst)Standard List Procedure.
(cddr lst)Standard List Procedure.
(caddr lst)Standard List Procedure.
Predict the results of evaluating the following expressions.
(cons 2 null) (cons 1 (cons 2 null)) (cons 5 (list 1 2)) (caddr (iota 7)) (list-ref 2 (iota 7)) (append (iota 2) (iota 2)) (list (iota 2) (iota 2)) (append (iota 2) null) (list (iota 2) null) (cons (iota 2) null)
You may verify your predictions using DrRacket, but be sure you understand the results.