# Lab: Build a Datapath, part 3

Assigned
Wednesday, Nov 21, 2018
Due
Friday, Nov 30, 2018 by 10:30pm
Submitting
Submit your first two parts by email before the first due date (next Tuesday). To submit the completed lab, upload datapath.circ, rules.py, and the three completed assembly programs from part D to gradescope.

## Overview

For this lab you will finish implementing the PIPS instruction set, add some useful pseudoinstructions, add a keyboard input, and write three useful programs using input and output devices.

### Due Dates

This lab has two due dates. You will need to complete parts A and B by next Tuesday. Please complete the remainder of the lab by the final due date.

There have been some small updates to assembler.py and pips.py for this lab; download them and place them in the datapath directory with your Logisim circuit file and rules.py file.

One of the improvements to the assembler for this lab is support for character constants. While the previous lab required you to manually convert characters to ASCII codes, you can now type characters in single quotes. Make sure this rewritten hello_world.s program works with your assembler and datapath before moving on to the lab:

.constant HALT 0xff00
.constant TERM 0xff10

nop
main:
li $s0, TERM li$t0, 'H'
sw $t0, 0($s0)
li $t0, 'e' sw$t0, 0($s0) li$t0, 'l'
sw $t0, 0($s0)
sw $t0, 0($s0)
li $t0, 'o' sw$t0, 0($s0) li$t0, ' '
sw $t0, 0($s0)
li $t0, 'W' sw$t0, 0($s0) li$t0, 'o'
sw $t0, 0($s0)
li $t0, 'r' sw$t0, 0($s0) li$t0, 'l'
sw $t0, 0($s0)
li $t0, 'd' sw$t0, 0($s0) li$t0, '!'
sw $t0, 0($s0)
li $s0, HALT jr$s0


## Part A: Bit Shifting

There are three useful arithmetic instructions we did not implement in the first lab for the datapath: logical left shift (sll), logical right shift (srl), and arithmetic right shift (sra). PIPS does not implement shift instructions using separate opcodes; instead, there are two fields in any rformat instruction that control shifting:

shift type (bits 10–11)
These bits indicate whether the datapath should perform no shifting (00), shift left (01), logically shift right (10), or arithmetically shift right (11).
shift amount (bits 0–3)
These bits tell the datapath how many bits to shift left or right.

Warning: the starter circuit file from the first lab had a splitter configured incorrectly for the shift amount field. You will need to edit this splitter to choose bits 0–3.

The control inputs tell the datapath how to shift a value, but what value are we shifting? In PIPS, the datapath shifts the value read from the register file’s second read port, $R_{d1}$. Your datapath should take the value from $R_{d1}$ and send it to three places, and not all of these should be shifted. Here are all three places $R_{d1}$ is connected to:

1. $R_{d1}$ should connect to a multiplexor that chooses a new value for the program counter. This is used for the jr instruction. This connection should pass in $R_{d1}$ without shifting it. (You’ve made this connection already in Datapath lab 2, part A.)
2. $R_{d1}$ should connect to the memory controller’s $W_d$ input. This is used to store values from a register into data memory. This connection should pass in $R_{d1}$ without shifting it. (You’ve made this connection already in Datapath lab 2, part C.)
3. $R_{d1}$ should connect to a multiplexor that chooses between this value and the immediate for the ALU’s $B$ input. This is the only connection that should receive a shifted value of $R_{d1}$. (You’ve made this connection already in Datapath lab 1, part A.)

You will need to break the connection to the multiplexor that chooses the ALU’s $B$ input, and send it off to a part of the datapath that performs the instruction’s requested shift operation. The shifting circuit can get a little messy, so use Logisim’s Project menu option “Add Circuit” to create a new subcircuit named shifter. This subcircuit should have the following inputs and outputs:

shift type (2-bit input)
This should come directly from the instruction’s corresponding field.
shift amount (4-bit input)
This should also come directly from the instruction field.
data in (16-bit input)
This input will connect to the register file’s $R_{d1}$ output. This input carries the value we need to shift.
data out (16-bit output)
This output will send the shifted value out to the multiplexor that chooses the ALU’s $B$ input.

Inside the subcircuit you will need to add a four-input multiplexor for 16-bit data lines. This multiplexor will choose whether to pass the unshifted, left shifted, right logically shifted, or right arithmetically shifted value from data in to data out. You will need to add three different shifter components from Logisim’s Arithmetic component section—one for each type of shift. Under the component settings, choose 16-bit values and select the type of shift you want each shifter to perform. As with the ALU we built earlier in the semester, we will ask the shifter to perform all of the different types of shifting, then use our multiplexor to choose the shifted value the instruction has requested.

Connect your shifter subcircuit to your datapath and verify that all of your previous instructions still work. If you accidentally pass a shifted value of $R_{d1}$ to data memory you will see some strange behavior there. Once you have verified that your datapath still works with all of your existing instructions you can move on to add assembler rules for shift instructions.

### Adding sll, srl, and sra Instructions

Now that you have added shifting to your datapath we can create assembler rules for the PIPS shifting instructions. Remember that these instructions do not use a dedicated opcode; we’ll build their functionality using an existing opcode with some clever instruction encoding.

Consider the PIPS assembly sll $t0,$t1, 4. This instruction should take the value in $t1, shift it left by four bits, and store the result in $t0. Even though the third operand is an immediate, this must be an rformat instruction because only rformat instructions support shifting. Let’s look at the encoding for this instruction field-by-field:

opcode
We want to shift values, but we don’t have a shifting opcode. We need an operation that asks the ALU to do nothing. Adding zero is a reasonable choice, so we’ll set our opcode to add.
r0
This field holds the register we want to write to, so for our example instruction is should be set to the register $t0. r1 This field specifies the register we read from the register file’s first port. This value isn’t shifted, so it shouldn’t be $t1. Since we want to add zero to our shifted value, we should choose the $zero register. r2 This is the register we’ll read from$R_{d1}$and then shift, so this should be set to $t1.
link
This isn’t a jal instruction, so we’ll leave link set to False.
shift_type
We want a left shift, which is the binary value 01. The PIPS module has a constant we can use here, so we’ll pass in pips.SHIFT_LEFT.
shift_amt
This is the amount of shifting we want to perform, so we can pass in the third operand here.

To summarize, the call to pips.rformat for the specific instruction above will look like this:

pips.rformat(opcode='add', r0='$t0', r1='$zero', r2='$t1', shift_type=pips.SHIFT_LEFT, shift_amt='4')  Using this example encoding as a guide, add a general rule for the sll instruction and write a simple program to test it with your datapath. Once you’ve verified that sll works, add rules for srl and sra as well. (Note that pips.py features similar constant definitions for the two right shifts.) Make sure you test right shifting negative values to verify that srl and sra have the expected behavior; logically right-shifting a negative number fills the left binary digits in with zeros, whereas arithmetically right-shifting the negative number should fill in the left digits with ones. Thinking about the numerical result of shifting is helpful as well. Arithmetically right-shifting a number by one divides that number by two, preserving its signed representation, but logically right-shifting that number divides it by two in unsigned representation. ## Part B: Useful Pseudoinstructions The starter code for the first lab included a translation rule for the li pseudoinstruction, but there are quite a few other useful pseudoinstructions that we’d like to have for PIPS. ### The not Pseudoinstruction We’ll start with a simple one: the not instruction. This instruction has two operands, an input register, and an output register. The instruction not$t0, $t1 should read the value of the $t1 register, flip all of its bits, and store the result in $t0. There is no opcode for not, but you can implement it using another opcode in a single instruction. You will need to figure out how to implement a not operation using the instructions your assembler already supports. Add the following python code to your rules.py file and fill in the translation rule for not. @assembler.instruction('not #, #', 1) def not_instr(dest, src): # Fill in the translation rule here  Because you are implementing not based on existing instructions, you can use the translation functions you already wrote as building blocks. As an example, look at the li pseudoinstruction; this translation rule calls the addi_instr function to encode an addi instruction that implements an li operation. Once you have not working you can move on to two other categories of pseudoinstructions. ### The push and pop Pseudoinstructions One of the trickiest aspects of MIPS assembly programming is dealing with stack variables. PIPS shares its stack discipline with MIPS. However, because we control both the architecture and assembly language, we can introduce new pseudoinstructions to make stack operations easier. Some architectures, such as x86, have push and pop assembly instructions. These instructions simplify stack usage. The instruction push$t0 would move the stack down by two bytes and save the value of $t0 to the newly-allocated stack space. A corresponding pop$t0 instruction would load the value from the current stack pointer into $t0, then move the stack up two bytes. Notice that we move the stack by two bytes rather than four because PIPS registers are only 16 bits. This pseudoinstruction makes it easy to quickly save a value to the stack by pushing it, then restore it later by popping into the same register. It is important that you remember the order you pushed values to the stack; when you pop them, they will come off in the reverse order they were pushed; this is a stack data structure, even if it’s a bit different than how you’ve implemented stacks in the past. While PIPS does not support these instructions natively, we can implement them as pseudoinstructions. Let’s first look at the push pseudoinstruction. When we see an instruction such as push$t0, this should translate to two PIPS instructions:

  addi $sp,$sp, -2
sw $t0, 0($sp)


We can write a PIPS assembler rule to generate this sequence; the assembler rule must specify that it will generate two instructions, translate them, and then return the two instructions as follows:

@assembler.instruction('push #', 2) # <- notice the 2 here. This tells the assembler that we will emit two instructions for this rule
def push_instr(reg):
return addi_instr('$sp', '$sp', '-2') + sw_instr(reg, '0', '$sp')  As you can see above, we generate two instructions by translating them individually, then adding (concatenating) them together. The assembler rule must report that it intends to generate two instructions or the assembler will report an error when you run this rule, so make sure to keep the 2 in the assembler.instruction decorator. Write a similar pseudoinstruction rule for the pop instruction. Test your implementation by modifying your fibonacci.s program from the second datapath lab to use push and pop instructions instead of explicit stack accesses. Once your modified program works you may move on. ### Branch Pseudoinstructions MIPS has useful branch pseudoinstructions that make it a bit easier to write conditional jumps. These pseudoinstructions—blt, ble, bgt, and bge—are implemented using a sequence of two instructions: an slt and either bne or beq. You will have to implement these instructions for PIPS as well, but there is a slight complication; MIPS has a special register called $at (for assembler temporary) where it can save intermediate values from slt instructions. PIPS does not have an $at register, so we’re going to have to modify some other register. The easiest one to choose is the first operand to our pseudoinstructions. For example, we can translate the pseudoinstruction blt$t0, $t1, label to:  slt$t0, $t0,$t1
bne $t0,$zero, label


To make it clear that blt will modify one of its input registers we can borrow Scheme’s naming scheme and add a ! to the end of the pseudoinstruction.

Implement the blt!, ble!, bgt!, and bge! pseudoinstructions by adding translation rules to your rules.py file. You must implement each of the four pseudoinstructions using just two PIPS instructions. Don’t forget to tell the assembler that these pseudoinstructions will be translated to two PIPS instructions in the assembler.instruction decorator.

Important caveat: The $zero register cannot be the first argument to these pseudoinstructions, because it is read-only. ## Part C: Keyboard Support You added a terminal to your datapath in the previous lab, but most computers also give you the ability to provide input to your programs as well. We’ll use the same strategy of memory-mapped I/O to connect Logisim’s keyboard component to the datapath. Add a keyboard device to your datapath somewhere near your memory controller. You can find this device in Logisim’s Input/Output section of components. The keyboard device in Logisim has a short buffer. When you press a key (after selecting the keyboard with the hand tool) it places a character in the buffer. When the keyboard is enabled and its clock input rises, it deletes the first value from its buffer. The keyboard continuously outputs the value of the first character in the buffer to the$\text{Data}$output, located on the lower right corner of the component. Connect the keyboard’s clock input to a clock component. You should not use an inverted clock here; we do not want the keyboard buffer to change state at the same time its value is being written to a register. As with the terminal, we need to choose a memory address that corresponds to the keyboard device. We’ll use 0xff20, since this is the next available word in the upper memory region after the terminal device. We want to allow the keyboard to advance to the next character in its buffer when we the program is reading from the address 0xff20. Add a comparator and constant to check if the memory address is equal to 0xff20. Remember that the memory controller’s$A$input is connected to the ALU output. We want to enable the keyboard only when the current instruction accesses memory at the address 0xff20, not just when its ALU output is 0xff20. Use an AND gate to turn on the keyboard’s enable pin (located in the lower left corner) when the comparator’s$=$output is true and the datapath is configured to read from memory. Warning: Be careful not to connect to the keyboard’s$\text{clear}$input! Now, hook the keyboard’s$\text{Data}$output to a bit extender the convert the 7-bit value to a 16-bit value. This is the value we want to send back to the register file instead of the data value read from memory. Most of the time we will pass the memory controller’s$R_d$output to the register file, but when the program is loading from address 0xff20 it should send the keyboard buffer output back instead. Add a multiplexor to choose between the memory controller’s$R_d$output and the keyboard’s$\text{Data}$output based on the result of the comparator you added earlier in this part of the lab. Now that you have the keyboard connected, save and assemble this simple PIPS program that echoes keyboard input to the TTY output: .constant HALT 0xff00 .constant TERM 0xff10 .constant KB 0xff20 .constant STACK_TOP 0xf800 nop main: li$s0, TERM
li $s1, KB li$sp, STACK_TOP

loop_top:
lw $t0, 0($s1)
beq $t0,$zero, loop_top
sw $t0, 0($s0)
li $t1, '\n' beq$t0, $t1, end j loop_top end: li$s0, HALT
jr \$s0


Load the assembled program into instruction memory. If you haven’t already, select the fastest tick speed from the “Tick Frequency” section of the “Simulate” menu. Start this program by choosing “Ticks Enabled” from the “Simulate” menu.

Using the hand tool, click on the keyboard buffer and type. You should see the program transfer characters from the keyboard buffer to the terminal output. (Note your keyboard press will need to span a clock tick.) The program should halt once you hit enter. Once this simple test is working you can move on to the next part of the lab.

Warning: Running this program from the command line will result in slightly different behavior. Logisim waits for a newline character before passing inputs to a keyboard buffer in TTY mode, so you won’t see any output until you hit enter. If you type a line that is longer than the keyboard’s buffer it will discard trailing characters. Command line runs also seem to trigger a bug that causes Logisim to skip the first input character on some runs; it’s fine if this happens in the command line, but it should not happen when running the processor inside the Logisim window.

## Part D: Interesting Programs

In this final part of the datapath lab sequence, you will write three interesting programs that use input and output.

### String Reverse

Write a program that reads in a line of text and prints it out in reverse. The program should continue reading until it hits a newline, then print and halt.

Hint: You might be thinking you need to allocate memory to store the line you read. While you can do this by choosing a reasonable address somewhere in the middle of data memory, there is a simpler solution that uses recursion.

Save your program in the file string_reverse.s.

### Convert to Uppercase

Write a program that reads in a line of text and prints it out with all lowercase letters converted to uppercase. Your program should leave numbers, punctuation, and uppercase letters as-is.

Save your program in the file string_uppercase.s.

### One-Function Calculator

Write a program that allows the user to type in a one-digit number, a plus sign, and another one-digit number. After typing these inputs followed by a newline character, the calculator should convert the typed digits to numbers, add them, and print the result (also followed by a newline).

You are welcome to reuse the number printing code you wrote for the previous lab. Run the whole program in a loop so it will continue accepting and evaluating user input until the user hits enter without typing a command. Your program does not need to handle invalid inputs; type carefully!

Save your program in the file calculator.s

## Optional Part E: Advanced Calculator

If you have extra time or want an additional challenge, implement a real four-function calculator. You will need to add a few important features to the code you’ve already written:

1. Add support for reading in multi-digit decimal numbers. You may find the code for printing numbers is a useful starting point.
2. Perform a different operation depending on whether the user typed +, -, * or /.
3. Add support for printing negative decimal numbers.

If you choose to complete this part, save your program in the file advanced_calculator.s.